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magistrature romaine schema

Since tribunes were technically not magistrates, they had no magisterial powers ("major powers" or maior potestas), and thus could not rely on such powers to veto. During the transition from monarchy to republic, the constitutional balance of power shifted from the executive (the Roman king) to the Roman Senate. While a dictator could ignore the right of Provocatio, that right, as well as the plebeian tribune's independence, theoretically still existed during a dictator's term. Imperial Consuls could preside over the senate, could act as judges in certain criminal trials, and had control over public games and shows. Praetors usually stood for election with the consuls before the assembly of the soldiers, the Centuriate Assembly. Since this did create problems for some magistrates (in particular, consuls and praetors), these magistrates occasionally had their imperium "prorogued" (prorogare), which allowed them to retain the powers of the office as a Promagistrate. Every year, two curule aediles and two plebeian aediles were elected. [36] While a tribune could veto any act of the senate, the assemblies, or the magistrates, he could only veto the act, and not the actual measure. The Tribal Assembly, while under the presidency of a higher magistrate (either a consul or praetor), elected the two curule aediles. [1] His power, in practice, was absolute. During the period of the Roman Kingdom, the King of Rome was the principal executive magistrate. Any action taken in spite of a valid provocatio was on its face illegal.[39]. [22], Every five years, two censors were elected for an eighteen-month term. [18] The consul was the chief diplomat, carried out business with foreign nations, and facilitated interactions between foreign ambassadors and the senate.

[28] The emperor also had the authority to carry out a range of duties that, under the republic, had been performed by the Roman censors. Other actions that could result in a censorial punishment were the poor cultivation of land, cowardice or disobedience in the army, dereliction of civil duties, corruption, or debt. Defined more broadly, however, imperium gave a magistrate the constitutional authority to issue commands (military, diplomatic, civil, or otherwise). or 400 (?)

During this period, the dictator's power over the Roman government was absolute, as they were not checked by any institution or magistrate. If they disobeyed the dictator, they could be forced out of office. [but, in the next 100 years, only 32 families provided 90 plebeian consuls; INTERREX: served only five days Aediles had wide-ranging powers over day-to-day affairs inside the city of Rome, and over the maintenance of public order. [40] Ordinary magistrates (such as consuls and praetors) retained their offices, but lost their independence and became agents of the dictator.
After the Dictator was the Consul (the highest position if not an emergency), and then the Praetor, and then the Censor, and then the curule aedile, and finally the quaestor. [27] The emperor's degree of Proconsular power gave him authority over all of Rome's military governors, and thus, over most of the Roman army. In addition, they did not have the power to convene the Roman Senate or Roman assemblies.

2 plebeians for the first time in 131 B.C. [1][2] His powers rested on law and legal precedent, and he could only receive these powers through the political process of an election.

The Master of the Horse was also technically a magistrate, since he was nominated by the dictator. Economische politiek. [21] Though they technically were not magistrates, the Plebeian Tribunes and the Plebeian Aediles were considered to be the representatives of the people. After the censors had been elected, the Centuriate Assembly granted the new censors censorial power. One obvious consequence of this sacrosanctity was the fact that it was considered a capital offense to harm a tribune, to disregard his veto, or to interfere with a tribune.

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